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বাংলাদেশের সবচেয়ে বড় শিক্ষা সহায়ক ওয়েব সাইট

Affirmative to Negative - Transformation of Sentence

TRANSFORMATION OF SENTENCE


AFFIRMATIVE TO NEGATIVE


শুরুতে আমরা জানবো affirmative & negative sentence কোনগুলো এবং এগুলো কিভাবে চেনা যায়। কারণ আপনি যদি ধরতেই না পারেন এটি কোন ধরনের বাক্য; তবে সেইটার Transformation করা আপনার কাছে আশা করা কঠিন। তাই এবার জেনে নিন কিছু Symbolic Word যা দিয়ে আপনি সহজেই ধরতে পারবেন এটি affirmative নাকি negative বাক্য।

Affirmative বাক্যে ব্যবহৃত Symbol/Word :
only, always, must, have to, every, sometime, a few, a little, many, much ইত্যাদি।

Negative বাক্যে ব্যবহৃত Symbol/Word :
none but, nothing but, not more than, not less than, never, not, no, few, little, can not but, could not but, too___to_,, no sooner __ than ___, ইত্যাদি।

এবার Affirmative থেকে Negative করার নিয়ম গুলো শিখে নিই —

Rule — 01

কোন Affirmative Sentence এ only / alone থাকে আর তা যদি Allah / God বা কোন ব্যক্তিকে নির্দেশ করে তাহলে উক্ত only / alone উঠে যায় এবং তার পরিবর্তে বাক্যের শুরুতে None but ব্যবহার করতে হয়। যেমন :

Affirmative : Only Allah can help us.
Negative : None but Allah can help us.

Affirmative : Only he can do the work.
Negative : None but he can do the work.

Affirmative : Only the brave deserve the fair.
Negative : None but the brave deserve the fair.

Affirmative : Only you are responsible.
Negative : None but you are responsible.

Affirmative : The virtuous alone are blessed.
Negative : None but the virtuous are blessed.

Affirmative : God alone is almighty.
Negative : None but God is almighty.

[ alone বাক্যের যেখানেই থাকুক না কেন None but সবসময় বাক্যের শুরুতে বসবে ]

আবার, উক্ত Only / alone যদি কোনো বস্তুকে নির্দেশ করে, তাহলে উক্ত Only / alone তুলে দিয়ে সেই জায়গায় nothing but বসবে। যেমন :

Affirmative : A child likes only sweets.
Negative : A child likes nothing but sweets.

Affirmative : Only the moon was seen.
Negative : Nothing but the moon seen.

Affirmative : He has only a few books.
Negative : He has nothing but a few books.

আবার, উক্ত Only যদি কোনো সংখ্যাবাচক শব্দ বা সংখ্যা নির্দেশ করে তবে উক্ত only তুলে দিয়ে সেই জায়গায় not more than / not less than বসবে। যেমন :

Affirmative : He is only ten.
Negative : He is not more than ten.

Affirmative : I need only a pencil.
Negative : I need not more than a pencil.

Affirmative : They need only ten taka.
Negative : They need not more than / not less than ten taka.

Practice more :

Affirmative : Only a rogue can act thus.
Negative : None but a rogue can act thus.

Affirmative : Only Rina can do this sum.
Negative : None but Rina can do this sum.

Affirmative : Only the science students can apply for the post.
Negative : None but the science students can apply for the post.

Affirmative : Only one student was absent.
Negative : None but one student was absent.

Affirmative : Jerry was only four years old.
Negative : Jerry was not more than four years old.

Affirmative : Only the moon was visible.
Negative : Nothing but the moon was visible.

Affirmative : There is only a high school at Naogaon.
Negative : There is not more than a high school at Naogaon.

Affirmative : Priyom is only six.
Negative : Priyom is not more than six.

Rule — 2

Affirmative sentence এ must থাকলে Negative করার সময় must এর পরিবর্তে can not but / can not help বসে। তবে can not help এর পরে যে Verb থাকবে উক্ত verb এর সাথে ing যোগ করতে হবে। যেমন :

Affirmative : We must yield to our fate.
Negative : We can not but yield our fate.

Affirmative : You must obey your parents.
Negative : You can not but obey your parents.
or, Negative : You can not help obeying your parents.

Affirmative : Man must die.
Negative : Man can not but die.

Affirmative : They must do the work.
Negative : They can not help doing the work.

Affirmative : The Prime Minister must visit us.
Negative : The Prime Minister can not but visit us.

Affirmative : Bangladesh must fight against corruption.
Negative : Bangladesh can not but fight against corruption.

Affirmative : He must obey his teacher.
Negative : He can not but obey his teacher.

Practice More :

Affirmative : I must go there.
Negative : I can not but go there.

Affirmative : We must obey the rules.
Negative : We can not but obey the rules.

Affirmative : She must play the game.
Negative : She can not but play the game.

Affirmative : I must do the sum.
Negative : I can not help doing the sum.

Rule — 3

Both ____ and / and যুক্ত কোন affirmative sentence কে negative করতে হলে উত্তর বাক্যের কখনও শুরুতে আবার কখনো মাঝে noy only ___ but also ব্যবহার করতে হয়। যেমন :

Affirmative : Both he and she were good friends.
Negative : Not only he but also she were good friends.

Affirmative : He took coffee and ice–cream.
Negative : He took not only coffee but also ice–cream.

Affirmative : Both Hemel and Mala are good friends.
Negative : Not only Hemel but also Mala are good friends.

Affirmative : I like chocolate and fast food.
Negative : I like not only chocolate but also fast food.

Rule — 4

Every কে negative করতে হলে Every এর পরিবর্তে প্রথমে There is no + Every এর পরের শব্দটি বসে + but বসে + বাক্যের বাকি অংশ বসে। যেমন :

Affirmative : Everyone hates a liar.
Negative : There is no one but hates a liar.

Affirmative : Everybody dislikes him.
Negative : There is nobody but dislike him.

There is no ___ but এর পরিবর্তে There is no ____ who ব্যবহার করা যায়। কিন্তু who এ পরে does not বসে। যথা :

Affirmative : Every mother loves her child.
Negative : There is no mother who does not love her child.
or, Negative : There is no mother but loves her child.

অনেক সময় Every এর পরিবর্তে no বসে এবং বাক্যস্থিত affirmative শব্দটির negative রূপ বসাতে হয়। যেমন :

Affirmative : Every mother loves her child.
Negative : No mother hates her child.

Affirmative : Everybody hates a liar.
Negative : Nobody likes a liar.

Practice More :

Affirmative : Every man will die.
Negative : There is man but will die.

Affirmative : Everybody should admit the truth.
Negative : Nobody should deny the truth.

Affirmative : Everybody works for humanity.
Negative : There is nobody but works for humanity.

Affirmative : Every patriot loves his motherland.
Negative : There is no patriot but loves his motherland.

Affirmative : Every rose has a thorn.
Negative : There is no rose but has a thorn.

Rule — 5

As soon as কে negative করতে হলে as soon as এর জায়গায় no sooner had বসে + সেই বাক্যের Subject বসে + মূল Verb এর past participle হবে + বাক্যের অবশিষ্ট অংশ বসবে + than বসবে + দ্বিতীয় বাক্য বসবে। যেমন :

Affirmative : As soon as the thief saw the police, he ran away.
Negative : No sooner had the thief seen the police than he ran away.

Affirmative : As soon as the train came, the passengers got down.
Negative : No sooner had the train come than the passengers got down.

Affirmative : As soon as the bell rang, the students entered the class.
Negative : No sooner had the bell rung than the students entered the class.

Practice More :

Affirmative : As soon as my sister got the news of her husband's death, she burst into tears.
Negative : No sooner had my sister got the news of her husband's death than she burst into tears.

Affirmative : As soon as the train started, we enjoyed.
Negative : No sooner had the train started than we enjoyed it.

Affirmative : As soon as the teacher enters the classroom, the students stand up.
Negative : No sooner had the teacher entered the classroom than the students stand up.

Rule — 6

Superlative degree যুক্ত বাক্যকে Negative করতে হলে,

No other + Superlative এর পরের অংশ + Verb + so / as + Superlative degree এর Positive form + so /as + প্রদত্ত Sentence এর subject. যেমন :

Affirmative : He is the best boy in the class.
Negative : No other boy in the class is as good as he.

Affirmative : He is the most intelligent boy in the class.
Negative : No other boy in the class is so intelligent so he.

Practice More :

Affirmative : Dhaka is the oldest city in Bangladesh.
Negative : No other city in Bangladesh is as old as Dhaka.

Affirmative : He is the best player.
Negative : No other player is as good as he.

Rule — 7

Affirmative sentence কে negative করতে হলে অনেকসময় উক্ত affirmative word কে negative করতে হয় এবং negative word – টির পূর্বে not বসাতে হয়। যেমন :

Affirmative : I shall remember you.
Negative : I shall not forget you.

Affirmative : He is a good player.
Negative : He is not a bad player.

Affirmative : Jerry was an honest boy.
Negative : Jerry was not a dishonest boy.

Practice More :

Affirmative : This is an extraordinary ship.
Negative : This is not an ordinary ship.

Affirmative : Rubel is healthy.
Negative : Rubel is not unhealthy.

Affirmative : The girl is punctual.
Negative : The girl is not late.

Affirmative : We caught the train.
Negative : We did not miss the train.

Affirmative : Man is mortal.
Negative : Man is not immortal.

Affirmative : I am grateful to you.
Negative : I am not ungrateful to you.

Affirmative : He is able to do the work.
Negative : He is not unable to do the work.

Affirmative : The man is wise.
Negative : The man is not unwise.

Rule — 8

Always যুক্ত affirmative sentence কে negative করতে always এর পরিবর্তে never বসে এবং affirmative word এর বিপরীত শব্দ বসে। যেমন :

Affirmative : I always agreed with him.
Negative : I never disagreed with him.

Affirmative : Rahim was always punctual.
Negative : Rahim was never late.

Affirmative : He always sits on the first bench.
Negative : He never sits on the last bench.

Affirmative : Always speak the truth.
Negative : Never tell a lie.

Practice More :

Affirmative : I always remember you.
Negative : I never forget you.

Affirmative : Faraisha always loves me.
Negative : Faraisha never hates me.

Affirmative : We always honour our teacher.
Negative : We never dishonour our teacher.

Affirmative : Everyone always remembers him.
Negative : Everyone never forgets him.

Rule — 9

Much যুক্ত affirmative sentence কে negative করতে much এর পরিবর্তে not a little বসে। যেমন :

Affirmative : He has much money.
Negative : He has not a little money.

Affirmative : There is much milk in the jog.
Negative : There is not a little milk in the jog.

Rule — 10

A little যুক্ত affirmative sentence কে negative করতে a little এর পরিবর্তে not much বসে। যেমন :

Affirmative : I have a little rice.
Negative : I have not much rice.

Affirmative : There is a little water in the glass.
Negative : There is not much water in the glass.

Rule — 11

A few যুক্ত affirmative sentence কে negative করতে a few এর পরিবর্তে not many বসে। যেমন :

Affirmative : I have a few friends.
Negative : I have not many friends.

Affirmative : Riyad had a few friends.
Negative : Reyad had not many friends.

Rule — 12

Many যুক্ত affirmative sentence কে negative করতে many এর পরিবর্তে not a few বসে। যেমন :

Affirmative : There are many students in the class.
Negative : There are not a few students in the class.

Affirmative : The boy has many kites.
Negative : The boy has doesn't a few kites.

Rule — 13

Affirmative sentence এ sometimes থাকলে negative করার সময় sometimes এর পরিবর্তে always বসে এবং তার পূর্বে no বসে। যেমন :

Affirmative : My friends sometimes visit me.
Negative : My friends do not always visit me.

Affirmative : A day labour is sometimes happy.
Negative : A day labour is not always happy.

Affirmative : Saila sometimes called me.
Negative : Saila did not always call me.

Practice More :

Affirmative : The girl sometimes cooked rice.
Negative : The girl did not always cook rice.

Affirmative : They sometimes play cricket.
Negative : They do not always play cricket.

Rule — 14

Too __ to যুক্ত affirmative sentence কে negative করতে হলে,

(i) প্রদত্ত Sentence এর subject + Verb বসে +
(ii) too এর পরিবর্তে ঐ জায়গায় so বসে +
(iii) too এর পরের adjective / adverb বসে +
(iv) that বসে +
(v) প্রথম subject আবার বসে +
(vi) tense অনুযায়ী can not / could not বসে +
(vii) প্রদত্ত to এর পরের অংশ বসে। যেমন :

Affirmative : He is too weak to go.
Negative : He is so weak that he can not go.

Affirmative : He is too poor to buy a mobile phone.
Negative : He is so poor that he can not buy a mobile phone.

Affirmative : Jerry is too small to chop wood.
Negative : Jerry is so small that he can not chop wood.

Practice More :

Affirmative : She is too foolish to understand this.
Negative : She is so foolish that she can not understand this.

Affirmative : It is too hot for me to go out.
Negative : It is so hot that I can not go out.

Affirmative : The girl was too dull to cut a good figure in the exam.
Negative : The girl is so dull that she could not cut a good figure in the exam.

Rule — 15

As ___ as যুক্ত affirmative sentence কে negative করতে হলে প্রথম as এর জায়গায় not less বসে এবং শেষ as এর জায়গায় than বসে। যেমন :

Affirmative : Jim and Della were as wise as the Magi.
Negative : Jim and Della were not less wise than the Magi.

Affirmative : He is as wise as his father.
Negative : He is not less wise than his father.

Affirmative : We are as good as Karim and Rahim.
Negative : We are not less good than Karim and Rahim.

Practice More :

Affirmative: The ice is as white as snow.
Negative : The ice is not less white than snow.

Affirmative : Bangladesh is as powerful as India.
Negative : Bangladesh is not less powerful than India.

Affirmative : He is as handsome as Karim.
Negative : He is not less handsome than Karim.

Rule — 16

Universal truth বা চিরন্তন অর্থবোধক যুক্ত affirmative sentence কে negative করতে হলে,

(i) বাক্যের শুরুতে সাহায্যকারী Verb বসে +
(ii) n't বসে +
(iii) বাকী অংশ বসে +
(iv) প্রশ্নবোধক চিহ্ন বসে। যেমন :

Affirmative : Health is wealth.
Negative : Isn't health is wealth?

Affirmative : Knowledge is power.
Negative : Isn't knowledge power?

সাহায্যকারী verb না থাকলে Don't / Doesn't বসে এবং বাকিসব tense অনুযায়ী হবে।

Affirmative : The sun sets in the west.
Negative : Doesn't the sun set in the west?

NEGATIVE TO AFFIRMATIVE


উপরের নিয়মগুলোর বিপরীত নিয়ম ব্যবহার করে negative sentence কে affirmative sentence -এ রূপান্তর করা যায়। যেমন :

Only he can do the sum এ affirmative sentence টির negative হবে None but he can do the sum.

উপরের affirmative sentence কে negative করার সময় যে নিয়মটি অনুসরণ করা হয়েছে সে নিয়মের বিপরীত নিয়ম অনুসরণ করেই negative থেকে affirmative করা হয়েছে।

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