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বাংলাদেশের সবচেয়ে বড় শিক্ষা সহায়ক ওয়েব সাইট

Simple to Complex - Transformation of Sentence

Simple to Complex

Rule — 1

In spite of, Notwithstanding, Despite যুক্ত Simple Sentence কে Complex Sentence করার নিয়ম —

(i) In spite of, Notwithstanding, Despite এর পরিবর্তে though বা although বসে।
(ii) Main clause এর Subject টি though বা although এর পরে বসে।
(iii) Being এর স্থলে to be verb এবং having এর স্থলে to have verb বসে।

Structure :
Though / Although + subject + be / have verb + adjective/noun ........

বিকল্প টেকনিক
In spite of = though / although

উদাহরণ —

Simple : In spite of being healthy, he is lazy.
Complex : Though he is healthy, he is lazy.

Simple : In spite of having vast riches, he leads a poor life.
Complex : Although he has vast riches, he leads a poor life.

Simple : In spite of intelligence, he could not shine in life.
Complex : Though he was Intelligence, he could not shine in life.

Simple : In spite of his poverty, he is honest.
Complex : Though he is poor, he is honest.

Practice more :

Simple : In spite of sincerity, he couldn't succeed.
Complex : Though he was sincere, he couldn't succeed.

Simple : Mina went to school in spite of her illness.
Complex : Mina went to school though she was ill.

Simple : In spite of his poverty, he always tries to help the poor.
Complex : Though he is poor, he always tries to help the poor.

Simple : Despite his popularity, he was not elected.
Complex : Though he was popular, he popular, he was not elected.

Simple : Notwithstanding his innocence, he was punished.
Complex : Though he was innocent, he was punished.

Rule — 2

Vt + object + present participle যুক্ত Simple Sentence কে Complex Sentence করার নিয়ম (Present Participle Phrase টি যদি Adjective হয়) —

(i) Present participle এর পূর্ববর্তী বাক্যাংশ অপরিবর্তিত থাকে।
(ii) verb এর object এর পরে that বা which বা who বসে।
(iii) Finite verb এর tense অনুযারী which বা that এর পরে to be verb বসে।
(iv) Present participle থেকে পরবর্তী বাক্যাংশ অপরিবর্তিত থাকে।

Structure
Subject + Relative pronoun ( which / that / who) + tense অনুযায়ী auxiliary verb + present participle (ing যুক্ত verb) + sentence এর বাকি অংশ বসে।

বিকল্প টেকনিক
Present Participle যদি Adjective হলে Relative pronoun (that / which / who)

উদাহরণ —

Simple : The boy playing in the field is my friend.
Complex : The boy who is playing in the field is my friend.

Simple : I saw a bird flying in the sky.
Complex : I saw a bird which was flying in the sky.

Simple : I saw a procession passing in the street.
Complex : I saw a procession that was passing in the street.

Rule — 3

Subject + verb + too + adjective / adverb + to — infinitive যুক্ত Simple Sentence কে Complex Sentence করার নিয়ম —

(i) Too + adjective এর স্থলে so + adjective এবং Infinitive এর স্থলে that বসে।
(ii) That এর পরে একই Subject পুনরায় ব্যবহৃত হয়।
(iii) Subject এর পরে tense অনুযায়ী can not বা could not বসে।

Structure
Subject + be verb + so + adjective/adverb + that + subject + can not / could not + verb .................

বিকল্প টেকনিক
Too .............. to + verb থাকলে So ............... that ................ not

উদাহরণ —

Simple : The man is too weak to walk.
Complex : The man is so weak that he can not walk.

Simple : I was too tired to move.
Complex : I was so tired that I could not move.

Simple : He was too busy to attend the function.
Complex : He was so busy that he could not attend the function.

Practice more :

Simple : You are too young to understand.
Complex : You are so young that you can not understand.

Simple : The poem was too hard for me to understand.
Complex : The poem was so hard for me that I could not understand.

Simple : He was too honest to show excuse.
Complex : He was so honest that he could not show excuse.

Simple : He was too poor to the help man.
Complex : He was so poor that he could not help the poor.

Rule — 4

Subject + verb + to / in order to + verb যুক্ত Simple Sentence কে Complex Sentence করার নিয়ম —

(i) to / in order to এর স্থলে so that বা in order that বসে।
(ii) এর পরে একই subject পুনরায় হয়
(iii) verb এর পূর্বে may, might, can, could বসে।

Structure
Subject + verb + ............... + so that + subject + can / could ................. verb .................

বিকল্প টেকনিক
Subject + verb + to/in order to + verb = so that/in order that

উদাহরণ —

Simple : We eat in order to live.
Complex : We eat so that we can live.

Simple : We eat to live.
Complex : We eat so that may live.

Simple : We read in order to succeed in life.
Complex : We read so that we can succeed in life.

Simple : We work hard in order to shine in life.
Complex : We work hard so that we can shine in life.

Practice more :

Simple : He works hard to succeed in life.
Complex : He works hard so that he can succeed in life.

Simple : Della saved some money to buy a present.
Complex : Della Saved some money so that she could buy a present.

Simple : I went there, to see my friend.
Complex : I went there so that I could see my friend.

Rule — 5

Without + gerund (Verb-ing) যুক্ত Simple Sentence কে Complex Sentence করার নিয়ম —

(i) Without এর পরিবর্তে If do not/does not Unless বসে।
(ii) Verb এর ing—form মূল verb এ রূপান্তরিত হয়।
(iii) Finite verb এর subject থেকে অবশিষ্ট বাক্যাংশ অপরিবর্তিত থাকে।

Structure
If + Subject + negative verb ..................
or, Unless + Subject + Positive verb .......................

বিকল্প নিয়ম
Without + verb-ing থাকলে If + subject + do / does not
or, Unless + subject + verb

উদাহরণ —

Simple : Without working hard, you can't succeed in life.
Complex : If you do not work hard, you can't succeed in life.
or, Complex : Unless you work hard, you can't succeed in life.

Simple : Without eating a balanced diet, you can't live well.
Complex : If you do not eat a balanced diet, you can't live well.

Simple : Without reading attentively, he will do well in the exam.
Complex : If he does not read attentively, he will not do well in the exam.
or, Complex : Unless he reads attentively, he will not do well in the exam.

Simple : Without working hard, you will not succeed.
Complex : Unless you work hard, you will not succeed.

Rule — 6

By + gerund (verb–ing) যুক্ত Simple Sentence কে Complex Sentence করার নিয়ম :—

(i) By এর জায়গায় if বসে।
(ii) Verb এর ing–form মূল verb এ পরিবর্তিত হয়।
(iii) Finite verb এর subject থেকে অবশিষ্ট বাক্যাংশ অপরিবর্তিত থাকে।

Structure
If + Subject + main verb ..............

বিকল্প নিয়ম
By + verb ing–form = If + subject + verb

উদাহরণ —

Simple : By drinking milk, you can get vitamins.
Complex : If you drink milk, you can get vitamins.

Simple : By reading attentively, you will pass the exam.
Complex : If you read attentively, you will pass in the exam.

Simple : By working hard, you will succeed in life.
Complex : If you work hard, you will succeed in life.

Rule — 7

Owing to, due to, for এবং on account of যুক্ত Simple Sentence কে Complex Sentence করার নিয়ম :—

(i) Phrase টিকে Adverb clause of reason এ রূপান্তর করতে হবে।
(ii) Owing to / due to / for / on account of এর পরিবর্তে As / Since / Because বসাতে হবে।

Structure
As / Since / because + subject + verb ...............................

বিকল্প নিয়ম
Because of/due to/owing to/on account of/for = Since/As

উদাহরণ —

Simple : Owing to illness, he could not attend the meeting.
Complex : As/Since he was ill, he could not attend the meeting.

Simple : The boy was punished for his disobedience.
Complex : The boy was punished because he was disobedient.
or, Complex : As the boy was disobedient, he was punished.

Rule — 8

Noun / Noun phrase কে noun clause এ expand করে Complex Sentencing করা হয়। যেমন —

Simple : He pleaded for his innocence.
Complex : He pleaded that he was innocent.

Simple : I know his father's name.
Complex : I know what his father's name is.

Simple : He admitted his guilt.
Complex : He admitted that he was guilty.

Rule — 9

Adjective phrase adjective clause এ expand করে Complex Sentencing করা হয়। যেমন —

বিকল্প নিয়ম
adjective phrase থাকলে Adjective clause

উদাহরণ —

Simple : He is an honest man.
Complex : He is a man who was honest.

Simple : He is the last man to utter such a word.
Complex : He is the last man who can utter such a word.

Simple : I want a car to drive.
Complex : I want a car which I can drive.

Simple : He died in his native village.
Complex : He died in the village where he was born.

Simple : I saw a lame man.
Complex : I saw a man who was lame.

Simple : The idle can not succeed in life.
Complex : Those who are idle can not succeed in life.

Simple : An industrious boy can shine in life.
Complex : A boy who is an industrious can shine in life.

Simple : A dishonest boy suffers in life.
Complex : A bog who is dishonest suffers in life.

Simple : A smiling face looks beautiful.
Complex : A face which is smiling looks beautiful.

Simple : I am sure of passing the exam.
Complex : I am sure that I will pass the exam.

Simple : His silence proves his guilt.
Complex : His silence proves that he is guilty.

Simple : The idle can not succeed in life.
Complex : Those who are idle can't succeed in life.

কিন্তু Adjective টি Subject কে qualify করলে নিয়মটি নিম্নরূপ —

Simple : Tania is a good student.
Complex : It is Tania who is a good student.

Simple : Sonia is a beautiful girl.
Complex : It is Sonia who is a beautiful girl.

Rule — 10

Present participle যুক্ত Simple Sentence কে Complex Sentence করার নিয়ম (Present Participle Phrase টি যদি Adverbial হয়) —

(i) Present participle এর পূর্ববর্তী বাক্যাংশ অপরিবর্তিত থাকে।
(ii) verb এর object এর পরে Since বা when বা As বসে।
(iii) Finite verb এর tense অনুযারী which বা এর পরে to be verb বসে।
(iv) Present participle থেকে পরবর্তী বাক্যাংশ অপরিবর্তিত থাকে।

Structure
Subject + Since / As / When + tense অনুযায়ী auxiliary verb + present participle (ing যুক্ত verb) + sentence এর বাকি অংশ বসে।

Or, As / Since + Subject + verb .................. , + .......................

বিকল্প টেকনিক
Present Participle যদি Adverbial হলে = Since / As / When

লক্ষ্যণীয়
(i) কারন বুঝালে Since / As এবং
(ii) সময় বুঝালে When বসে।

উদাহরণ —

Simple : Closing the door, I went back to work.
Complex : When I closed the door, I went back to work.

Simple : The weather being fine, we started for Chattogram.
Complex : As the weather was fine, we started for Chattogram.

Simple : Disappointed, he left the place.
Complex : As he was disappointed, he left the place.

Rule — 11

Being যুক্ত Simple Sentence কে Complex Sentence করার নিয়ম —

(i) Being এর বাকী sentence যে Tense এ থাকে ; being এর অংশকে সেই একই tense এ রূপান্তর করে নিতে হয়।
(ii) sentence এর মাঝে comma (,) বসে।
(iii) being যুক্ত sentence এ subject না থাকলে একই subject দুটি sentence এ বসে।
(iv) প্রথম বাক্যের প্রথমে As/Since/When বসে। [ since/as কারন বুঝালে এবং when – সময় বুঝালে ]

বিকল্প নিয়ম
Being + adjective থাকলে Since / As / When + subject + am / is / are / was / were

উদাহরণ —

Simple : The water being very hot, I could not drink it.
Complex : Since the water was very hot, I could not drink it.

Simple : Being poor, Rahim could not buy a chain.
Complex : Since Rahim was poor, he could not buy a chain.

Simple : The water being dirty, I could not drink it.
Complex : Since the water was dirty, I could not drink it.

Simple : Being poor, the man could not buy his food.
Complex : As the man was poor, he could not buy his food.

Rule — 12

Because of যুক্ত Simple Sentence কে Complex Sentence করার নিয়ম :—

(i) প্রথমে Since বসাতে হয়।
(ii) subject বসে।
(iii) verb + Noun Adjective বসাতে হয়।
(iv) দ্বিতীয় Sentence টি অপরিবর্তিত অবস্থায় বসে।

Structure
Since + subject + verb + adjective/noun + Comma (,) + 2nd Sentence.

বিকল্প নিয়ম
Because of থাকলে Since / As

উদাহরণ —

Simple : Because of my illness, I could not join the meeting.
Complex : Since I was ill, I could not attend the meeting.

Simple : Because of their playing well, they won the game.
Complex : Since they played well, they won the game.

Rule — 13

Simple Sentence এ যদি in the morning, in the evening, in the afternoon, at night, in the spring, in winter, in autumn থাকে তবে Simple Sentence কে Complex Sentence করার সময় tense অনুযায়ী উপরের phrases গুলোর পূর্বে when it is/was বসে + যে phrase টি দেয়া থাকে সে phrase টি বসে। যেমন :—

Simple : The cuckoo sings in spring.
Complex : The cuckoo sings when it is spring.

তবে Sinple sentence এ at the time of থাকলে simple sentence কে complex করার সময় at the time of এর পরিবর্তে when বসাতে হয়। যেমন —

Simple : I saw him at the time of playing.
Complex : I saw him when he was playing.

Simple : He woke up at the time of raining.
Complex : He woke up when it was raining.

Simple : He called me at the time of eating.
Complex : He called me when I was eating.

Simple : They heard her at the time of singing.
Complex : They heard her when she was singing.

Rule — 14

Perfect Participle যুক্ত Simple Sentence কে Complex Sentence করার নিয়ম —

বিকল্প নিয়ম
Perfect participle (having + V(p.p)) থাকলে When + subject + had + V(p.p)

উদাহরণ —

Simple : Having done the work, he went away.
Complex : When he had done the work, he went away.

Simple : Having heard the news, she cried out in sorrow.
Complex : When she heard the news, she cried out in sorrow.

Simple : Having seen a horrible sight, he got frightened.
Complex : When he had seen a horrible sight, he got frightened.

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