My All Garbage

Shuchi Potro
সাধারণ জ্ঞান অ্যাসাইনমেন্ট-২০২১ বাংলা রচনা সমগ্র ভাবসম্প্রসারণ তালিকা অনুচ্ছেদ চিঠি-পত্র ও দরখাস্ত প্রতিবেদন প্রণয়ন অভিজ্ঞতা বর্ণনা সারাংশ সারমর্ম খুদে গল্প ব্যাকরণ Composition / Essay Paragraph Letter, Application & Email Dialogue List Completing Story Report Writing Graphs & Charts English Note / Grammar পুঞ্জ সংগ্রহ বই পোকা হ য ব র ল তথ্যকোষ পাঠ্যপুস্তক CV & Job Application বিজয় বাংলা টাইপিং My Study Note আমার কলম সাফল্যের পথে
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৫ অক্টোবর - বিশ্ব শিক্ষক দিবস
বাংলাদেশের সবচেয়ে বড় শিক্ষা সহায়ক ওয়েব সাইট

Grammar : Voice Change

Voice Change
(বাচ্য পরিবর্তন)


সংজ্ঞা : Verb কার্য প্রকাশের ধরনকে Voice বলে।

অর্থাৎ Voice হচ্ছে Verb এর গঠন যার দ্বারা Subject নিজে কিছু করে অথবা অন্যের কাজ তার উপরে এসে পড়ে তা বুঝায়।

Voice মূলত ২ প্রকার। যথা :

(i) Active Voice : Verb এর যে রূপে Subject ক্রিয়াশীল থেকে নিজে কাজ করে তাকে Active Voice বলে। যেমন— I do the work. অর্থাৎ Active Voice এ বাক্যটির গঠন:— 
Subject + Verb + Object 

(ii) Passive Voice : Verb এর যে পরিবর্তনশীল  যে রূপে Subject নিস্ক্রিয় অর্থাৎ কাউকে দ্বারা কোনো কাজ করানো হয়েছে বুঝায় Passive Voice বলে। যেমন— উপরিউক্ত I do the work বাক্যটির Passive Voice হল The work is done by me

তবে অনেকে Quasi Passive Voice কে Voice একটি প্রকারভেদ বলে মনে করেন। সুতরাং সব মিলে Voice তিন প্রকার।

(iii) Quasi Passive Voice : গঠনগতভাবে Active কিন্তু অর্থের দিক থেকে Passive। যেমন— The rose smells sweet.

উক্ত ৩ প্রকার Voice এর বৈশিষ্ট্য নিম্নরূপ:—

Active Voice 
(i) সক্রিয় 
(ii) Subject নিজেই সরাসরি কার্য সম্পাদন করে।
(iii) Tense এর নিয়ম অনুযায়ী Verb থাকে।
যেমন— He plays football. 

Passive Voice
(i) নিস্ক্রিয় 
(ii) Subject সরাসরি থাকে না।
(iii) Passive মাত্রই be + v p.p 
যেমন— Football is played by him.

Quasi Passive Voice
(i) গঠনগত দিক থেকে Active কিন্তু অর্থগত ভাবে Passive. 
যেমন— Honey taste sweet.

Active Voice কে Passive Voice এ রূপান্তর করার নিয়ম

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(১) Active Voice এর Subject, Passive Voive এর Verb এর Object হিসেবে ব্যবহৃত হয়।
(২) Active Voice এর object, Passive Voice এর Verb এর Subject হিসেবে ব্যবহৃত হয়।
(৩) Tense এবং mood অনুযায়ী be verb বসে।
(৪) মূল Verb এর Past Participle বসে।
(৫) Object এর পূর্বে by ( to/ with/ at/ in ইত্যাদি) Preposition বসে।

উদাহরণ —  
Active :  I eat rice. 
Passive : Rice is eaten by me. 

✔ বিঃদ্রঃ 
(১) Verb কে বা কাহারো দ্বারা প্রশ্ন করলে Subject পাওয়া যায়।
(২) Verb কে বা কাহারো দ্বারা প্রশ্ন করলে Object পাওয়া যায়।

Subject থেকে Object এর পরিবর্তন:—

Active Voice
এর Subject
Passive Voice
এর Object
I me
We us
You you
He him
She her
They them
Who whom
It it
Rakib (Any Name) Rakib

Tense অনুযায়ী Passive Voice এ Verb এর গঠন


এক নজরে সকল Tense এর Auxiliary Verb–র ব্যবহার  

+ Indefinite Continuous Perfect
Present am / is / are am V.ing / is V.ing / are V.ing have been / has been
Past was / were was V.ing / were V.ing had been
Future shall be / will be shall be V.ing / will be V.ing shall have been / will have been

Present Indefinite Tense
Active : Subject + verb + object 
Passive : Object + am/ is / are + Verb এর Past Participle + by +  Subject 

যেমন— 
Active : I do the work.
Passive : The work is done by me.

Active : Shemu writes a letter.
Passive: A letter is written by Shemu.

Active : Shemu does not write a letter. 
Passive : A letter is not written by Shemu.

Active : Does Shemu write a letter?
Passive : Is a letter written by Shemu?

Active : I eat rice.
Passive : Rice is eaten by me.

Active : We read novels.
Passive : Novels are read by us.

Active : His behavior annoys me sometimes. 
Passive : Sometimes I am annoyed at his behaviour. 

Active : All his pupils like him.
Passive : He is liked by all his pupils. 

Active : Fortune favours the brave.
Passive : The brave are favoured by fortune.

Active : He has a cow. 
Passive : A cow is had by him.

Active : I have a cat.
Passive : A cat is had by me.

Active : They play football. 
Passive : Football is played by them.

Present Continuous Tense

Active : Subject + am/ is/ are + V.ing + Object 
Passive : Object + am/ is/ are + being +  Verb এর Past Participle + by + Subject 

যেমন— 
Active : I am writing a letter.
Passive : A letter is being written by me.

Active : We are digging a canal.
Passive : A canal is being dug by us.

Active : They are eating mangoes.
Passive : Mangoes are being eaten by them.

Active : Some children are helping the wounded man.
Passive : The wounded man is being helped by some children. 

Active : Shila was writing a letter. 
Passive : A letter was being written by Shila.

Active : Shemu is writing a letter.
Passive : A letter is being written by Shemu. 

Active : Shemu is not writing a letter. 
Passive : A letter is not being written by Shemu.

Active : Is Shemu writing a letter? 
Passive : Is a letter being written by Shemu?

Present Perfect Tense

Active : Subject + has/ have + Verb এর Past Participle + Object. 
Passive : Object + have/ has + been + Verb এর Past Participle + by + Object   

যেমন— 
Active : He has written a letter. 
Passive : A letter has been written by him.

Active : He has done the work.
Passive : The work has been done by him.

Active : I have eaten rice.
Passive : Rice has been eaten by me.

Active : Shemu has written a letter. 
Passive : A letter has been written by Shemu.

Active : Shemu has not written a letter. 
Passive : A letter has not been written by Shemu. 

Active : Has Shemu written a letter? 
Passive : Has a letter been written by Shemu?

Past Indefinite Tense

Active : Subject + Verb এর Past form + Object 
Passive : Object + was/ were + Verb এর Past Participle + by + Subject 

যেমন— 
Active : Rubina wrote a letter. 
Possitive : A letter was written by Rubina.

Active : Columbus discovered America. 
Positive : America was discovered by Columbus. 

Active : He killed a bird.
Passive : A bird was killed by him.

Active : I read the books.
Passive : The books were read by me.

Active : Shemu wrote a letter. 
Possitive : A letter was written by Shemu.

Active : Shemu did not write a letter. 
Positive : A letter was not written by Shemu.

Active : Did Shemu write a letter? 
Passive : Was a letter written by Shemu?

Past Continuous Tense

Active : Subject + was/ were + V (ing) + Object 
Passive : Object + was/ were + being + Verb এর Past Participle + by + Subject 

যেমন— 
Active : He was writing a letter. 
Passive : A letter was being written by him.

Active : They were building a house.
Passive : A building was being built by them.

Active : He was reading a book.
Passive : A book was being read by him.

Active : They were flying kites.
Passive : Kites were being flown by them.

Active : Shemu was writing a letter. 
Passive : A letter was being written by Shemu.

Active : Shemu was not writing a letter. 
Passive : A letter was not being written by Shemu.

Active : Was Shemu writing a letter? 
Passive : Was a letter being written by Shemu?

Past Perfect Tense

Active : Subject + had + Verb এর Past Participle + Object 
Passive : Object + had + been + Verb এর Past Participle + by + subject. 

যেমন— 
Active : He had written a letter. 
Passive : A letter had been written by him.

Active : I had gone there. 
Passive : There had been gone by me.

Active : We had dug the canal.
Passive : The canal had been dug by us.

Active : Shemu had written a letter before I left the place.
Passive : A letter had been written by Shemu before I left the place.

Active : Shemu had not written a letter before I left the place.
Passive : A letter had not been written by Shemu before I left the place.

Active : Had Shemu written a letter before I left the place?
Passive : Had a letter been written by Shemu before I left the place?

Future Indefinite Tense

Active : Subject + shall/ will + Verb + Object. 
Passive : Object + shall/ will + be + Verb এর Past Participle + by + subject. 

যেমন— 
Active : He will write a letter. 
Passive : A letter will be written by him.

Active : I shall do the work.
Passive : The work will be done by me.

Active : He will help me.
Passive : I shall be  helped by him.

Active : Shemu will write a letter. 
Passive : A letter will be written by Shemu.

Active : Shemu will not write a letter. 
Passive : A letter will not be written by Shemu.

Active : Will Shemu write a letter? 
Passive : Will a letter be written by Shemu?

Future Continuous Tense

Active : Subject + shall/ will + be + V (ing) + Object. 
Passive : Object + shall/ will + be + being + Verb এর Past Participle + by + subject. 

যেমন— 
Active : You will be selling books.
Passive : Books will be being sold by you.

Active : The teacher will be teaching us.
Passive : We shall be being taught by the teacher. 

Active : We shall be taking tea.
Passive : Tea will be being taken by us.

Active : Shemu will be writing a letter. 
Passive : A letter will be being written by Shemu.

Active : Shemu will not be writing a letter. 
Passive : A letter will not be being written by Shemu.

Active : Will Shemu be writing a letter?
Passive : Will a letter be being written by Shemu?

Future Perfect Tense

Active : Subject + shall/ will + have + Verb এর Past Participle + Object 
Passive : Object + shall/ will + have been + Verb এর Past Participle + by + Object. 

যেমন— 
Active : He will have beaten the convict.
Passive : The convict will have been beaten by him.

Active : He will have read the book.
Passive : The book will have been read by him.

Active : They will have finished the work.
Passive : The work will have been finished by them.

Active : Shemu will have written a letter. 
Passive : A letter will have been written by Shemu.

Active : Shemu will have not written a letter. 
Passive : A letter will have not been written by Shemu.

Active : Will Shemu have written a letter? 
Passive : Will heve a letter been written by Shemu?

Passive Voice of Modal Verb


Rule— 1
Shall, should, will, would, can, could, may, might, must, ought to ইত্যাদি যুক্ত থাকলে Passive Voice করার সময় এদের পরে be বসে + মূল Verb এর Past Participle হয়।

Structure :
Modal Verb + be + Verb এর Past Participle

যেমন—
Active : I may help you.
Passive : You may be helped by me.

Active : We ought to love our country. 
Passive : Our country ought to be loved by us.

Active : We should respect our teachers. 
Passive : Our teachers should be respected by us.

Active : He used to take tea in the evening. 
Passive : Tea used to taken by him in the evening. 

Active : You must do the work. 
Passive : The work must be done by you.

Rule— 2

Active Voice এর ক্ষেত্রে যদি am to / is to / are to / has to / have to / don't have to / doesn't have to / didn't have to / had to / going to + মূল Verb হিসেবে থাকে তাহলে Passive Voice এ am to / is to / are to / has to / have to / don't have to / doesn't have to / didn't have to / had to / going to এর পরে be বসে এবং be এর পরে Verb এর Past Participle ব্যবহৃত হয়।

যেমন— 
Active : My uncle is going to open a bank account. 
Passive : A bank account is going to be opened by my uncle.

Active : His friend didn't have to obey the rule.
Passive : The rule didn't have to be obeyed by his friend. 

Active : I am to do it.
Passive : It is to be done by me.

Active : They are going to buy a car.
Passive : A car is going to bought by them. 

Active : One should keep one's promise. 
Passive : One's promise should be kept by one.

Active : We should feed the unfed.
Passive : The unfed should be fed.

Active : I have to do it.
Passive : It has to be done by me.

Active : You have to do the work.
Passive : The work has to be done by you.

Active Voice এর Subject কে Object করার সময় সব সময় by ব্যবহৃত হয় না। এ ক্ষেত্রে অন্য preposition যেমন: with, at, to, in ইত্যাদি ব্যবহৃত হয়ে থাকে। যেমন— 

Note : Pleased, satisfied, shocked, annoyed, surprised ইত্যাদি verb এর পরে by এর পরিবর্তে ব্যক্তির ক্ষেত্রে with এবং আচরণ, কাজ অথবা বিষয়ের ক্ষেত্রে at বসে। এছাড়া known to, contained in, filled with ইত্যাদি ব্যবহৃত হয়।

যেমন— 
Active : Panic seized the writer. 
Passive : The writer was seized with panic.

Active : He annoyed me.
Passive : I was annoyed with him.

Active : The news shocked me.
Passive : I was shocked at the news.

Active : His behaviour surprised me.
Passive : I was surprised at his behaviour. 

Active : Smoke filled the room.
Passive : The room was filled with smoke.

Active : I knew him.
Passive : He was known to me.

Active : I know him.
Passive : He is known to me.

Active : The newspaper contains daily news.
Passive : Daily news is contained in the newspaper.

Active : Your work satisfied me.
Passive : I was satisfied with your work.

Active : This news will please you.
Passive : You will be pleased with this news.
 
Practice more:

Active : The boy satisfied me.
Passive : I was satisfied with the boy.

Active : Your work satisfied me.
Passive : I was satisfied with your work.

Active : His behaviour pleased me.
Passive : I was pleased with his behaviour. 

Active : The boy pleased the teacher. 
Passive : The teacher was pleased with the boy.

Active : His father's death shocked me much.
Passive : I was much shocked at his father's death.

Active : His conduct annoyed me.
Passive : I was annoyed at his conduct. 

Active : His strange behaviour surprised me.
Passive : I was surprised at his strange behaviour. 

Active : His behaviour stunned me.
Passive : I was stunned at his behaviour. 

Active : I know the man.
Passive : The man is known to me.

Passive Voice of Quasi–Passive Verb


Quasi Passive voice
(কর্মকর্তৃ বাচ্য)

এ সকল Verb – Active voice এ ব্যবহৃত হয়ে passive voice এর অর্থ প্রকাশ করে অর্থাৎ গঠনগত ভাবে Active কিন্তু অর্থের দিক থেকে Passive। সেজন্য একে Quasi Passive voice বলে। Quasi Passive voice — দুই প্রকার। যথা:—

(1) Complement যুক্ত Quasi Passive voice. যেমন—  Rice sells cheap. Honesty tastes sweet. (এখানে sells verb এর complement হল cheap এবং tastes verb এর complement হল sweet)

(2) Complement বিহীন Quasi Passive voice. যেমন— The house is building. The book is printing. (এখানে building এবং printing  Quasi - Passive verb এর কোনো complement নেই।

Complement যুক্ত Quasi - Passive যুক্ত Active Voive কে Passive Voice এ রূপান্তরের নিয়ম দুটি। তারমধ্যে যেকোনো একটি নিয়ম অনুসরণ করলেই যথেষ্ঠ। আমি এখানে আপনার সুবিধার্থে দুটি নিয়মই বর্ণনা করেছি।

Complement যুক্ত Quasi - Passive Verb


Rule - 1

(i) Active voice এর subject টিই passive voice এর subject হিসেবে বসে + (ii) tense অনুযায়ী auxiliary verb বসে + (iii) adj টি বসে + (iv) when বসে + (v) প্রথম subject অনুসারে it / they বসে + (vi) আবার tense অনুসারে সাহায্যকারী verb বসে + (vii) মূল verb এর past participle ব্যবহৃত হয়। 

Structure :
Subject + be verb + complement + when/ if + subject + be verb + মূল verb এর past participle 

যেমন— 
Active : The rose smells sweet.
Passive : The rose is sweet when it is smelt.

Active : The stone feels rough.
Passive : The stone is rough when it is felt.

Active : The mango tastes sour.
Passive : The mango is sour when it is tasted.

Active : The bed feels soft.
Passive : The bed is soft when it is felt.

Active : This composition reads well.
Passive : This composition is well when it is read.

Active : Honey tastes sweet.
Passive : Honey is sweet when it is tasted.

Active : The book reads well.
Passive : The book is well when it is read.

Rule - 2

(i) Active voice এর subject টিই passive voice এর subject হিসেবে বসে + (ii) tense অনুযায়ী auxiliary verb বসে + মূল verb এর past participle ব্যবহৃত হয় + adjective টি বসে।

উদাহরণ :—
Active : The book reads well.
Passive : The book is read well.

Active : Honey tastes sweet.
Passive : Honey is tasted sweet.

Active : The rose smells sweet.
Passive : The rose is smelt sweet.

Active : The stone feels rough.
Passive : The stone is felt rough.

Active : The mango tastes sour.
Passive : The mango is tasted sour.

Active : The bed feels soft.
Passive : The bed is felt soft.

Active : This composition reads well.
Passive : This composition is read well.

Practice more :

Active : Rice sells cheap.
Passive : Rice is cheap when it is sold.
or, Passive : Rice is sold cheap.

Active : The moon looks beautiful. 
Passive : The moon is beautiful when it is looked at. 
or, Passive : The moon is looked beautiful. 

Active : Green mangoes taste sour.
Passive : Green mangoes are sour when they are tasted. 
or, Passive : Green mangoes are tasted sour.

Complement বিহীন Quasi - Passive Verb


Complement বিহীন Quasi - Passive Verb যুক্ত  Active Voice কে Passive Voice এ রূপান্তরের নিয়ম — 

(i) Subject টি অপরিবর্তিত থাকে।
(ii) Subject এর পরে যথাক্রমে 'to be' verb ও  verb এর past participle ব্যবহৃত হয়।

Structure :
Subject + be verb + being + মূল verb এর past participle 

উদাহরণ — 
Active : The drums are beating. 
Passive : The drums are being beaten.

Active : The cows are milking.
Passive : The cows are being milked.

Active : The book is printing. 
Passive : The book is Beijing printed.

Active : The house is building. 
Passive : The house is being built.

Active : The trumpets are sounding. 
Passive : The trumpets are being sounded. 

Active : The cow is milking.
Passive : The cow is being milked.

Passive Voice of Imperative Sentences


Imperative Sentence এর Active Voice কে Passive Voice এ পরিবর্তনের জন্য বাক্যের শুরুতে প্রথমে Let যুক্ত করতে হয়।  Let এর পরে Active Voice এর Object বসে। এর পরে be Verb বসে এবং মূল Verb এর Past Participle বসাতে হয়।

Rule :
Let + Object + be + মূল Verb এর Past Participle 

এক নজরে সকল Imperative Sentence এর নিয়মাবলি (Main verb, Do not, Never, Always, Please, Kindly, Let থাকলে) — 
  • শুধু verb = Let + obj + be + মূল verb এর past participle. 
  • Do not = Let not + obj + be + মূল verb এর past participle. 
  • Never = Let never + obj + be + মূল verb এর past participle. 
  • Always = Let + obj + be + মূল verb এর past participle + always. 
  • Please = You are requested to + sentence এর বাকী অংশ 
  • Kindly = You are requested to + sentence এর বাকী অংশ 
  • Let = Let + object + be + মূল verb এর past participle + by + object. 

উদাহরণ —
Active : Post the letter. 
Passive : Let the letter be posted.

Active : Change the voice.
Passive : Let the voice be changed.

Active : Instruct the boy to the attentive.
Passive : Let the boy be instructed to be attentive.

Active : Do the sum.
Passive : Let the sum be done.

Active : Do the work.
Passive : Let the work be done.

Active : Shut the door.
Passive : Let the door be shut.

Active : Write the letter without any delay.
Passive : Let the letter be written without any delay.

Active : Always speak the truth.
Passive : Let the truth be spoken always. 

Active : Take care of your health. 
Passive : Let your health be taken care of.

Active : Always speak the truth.
Passive : Let the truth be spoken always. 

Imperative Sentence এর প্রথমে/শুরুতে Please / Kindly থাকলে Passive Voice করার সময় শুরুতে 'You are requested to' বসে কিন্তু Sentence টি Negative হলে ' You are requested not to ' বসে।

উদাহরণ — 
Active : Please meet me.
Passive : You are requested to meet me.

Active : Please do not tell a lie.
Passive : You are requested not to tell a lie.

Active : Please come here.
Passive : You are requested to come here.

Active : Please go there.
Passive : You are requested to go there.

Active : Please help me.
Possive : You are requested to help me.

Active : Kindly open the door.
Passive : You are requested to open the door.

Active : Please do not smoke.
Passive : You are requested not to smoke.

Imperative Sentence টি Let দ্বারা শুরু হলে Passive Voice এ রূপান্তরের সময় Let অপরিবর্তনীয় থাকবে। এবং Object এর পূর্বে by বসে।

উদাহরণ —
Active : Let me write a letter. 
Passive : Let a letter be written by me.

Active : Let him do it.
Passive : Let it be done by me.

Active : Let the boy do the work.
Passive : Let the work be done by the boy.

Active : Let us arrange a picnic. 
Passive : Let a picnic be arranged by us.

Active : Let the girl sing a song.
Passive : Let a song be sung by the girl.

Active : Let him play the match.
Passive : Let the match be played by him.

Active : Let him read the book.
Passive : Let the book be read by him.

Imperative Sentence টি Negative হলে Let not দিয়ে Passive Voice করতে হয়।

উদাহরণ —
Active : Don't laugh at the poor.
Passive : Let not the poor be laughed at.

Active : Do not do it.
Passive : Let not it be done.

Active : Do not shut the door.
Passive : Let not the door be shut.

Active : Don't play football at noon.
Passive : Let not football be played at noon.

Active : Do not hate the poor.
Passive : Let not the poor be hated.

Active : Don't tell a lie.
Passive : Let not a lie be told.

Never যুক্ত Imperative Sentence কে Active Voice থেকে Passive Voice এ দুভাবে রূপান্তর করা যায়। যেমন—

Structure 1 :
Let + not + object + ever + be + মূল Verb এর Past Participle. 

Or,

Structure 2 :
Let + never + object + be + মূল Verb এর Past Participle.

উদাহরণ —
Active :  Never tell a lie.
Passive : Let never a lie be told.
or, Passive : Let not a lie ever be told.

Active : Never catch the Jatka.
Passive : Let not the Jatka be caught. 
or, Passive : Let not the Jatka ever be caught. 

Imperative Sentence এর মূল Verb এর পরে যথাক্রমে direct এবং indirect object থাকলে passive voice করার সময় direct object টি subject হিসেবে ব্যবহৃত হয় এবং  indirect object এর পূর্বে to অথবা for বসে।

উদাহরণ —
Active : Give me a glass of water.
Passive : Let a glass of water be given to me.

Active : Buy me a pen.
Passive : Let a pen be bought for me.

Active : Pluck me a flower. 
Passive : Let a flower be plucked for me.

Active : Bring me a book.
Passive : Let a book be bought for me. 

Active : Give me your watch.
Passive : Let your watch be given to me.

Active : Buy me a book. 
Passive : Let a book be bought for me.

Passive Voice of Interrogative Sentences


Rule - 1

সাহায্যকারী Verb (do, does, am, is, are, have, has, can, should ইত্যাদি) যুক্ত Sentence এর Tense/ mood অনুযায়ী বাক্যের শুরুতে সাহায্যকারী verb (be verb) + subject + মূল verb এর past participle + ......................... + ? 

উদাহরণ — 
Active : Do you see the bird?
Passive : Is the bird seen by you?

Active : Has he done it?
Passive : Has it been done by him?

Note : Active voice এ  do/ does এর পরিবর্তে am / is / are বসে এবং did এর  পরিবর্তে was / were বসে এবং shall বা will এর পরিবর্তে shall be / will be বসে এবং have বা has এর পরিবর্তে have been / has been বসে।

Active : Do you take tea?
Passive : Is tea taken by you?

Active : Have you eaten rice?
Passive : Has rice been eaten by you?

Active : Is he reading a book?
Passive : Is a book being read by him?

Active : Will you open the door? 
Passive : Will the door be opened by you?

Active : Did you play football? 
Passive : Was football played by you?

Active : Did you see the man?
Passive : Was the man seen by you?

Active : Have you read the book?
Passive : Has the book been read by you?

Rule - 2

Interrogative sentence যদি When, what, which, why, how, where ইত্যাদি দ্বারা শুরু হয়, তাহলে passive voice এ উক্ত question word গুলো অপরিবর্তনীয় থাকে। 

যেমন — 
Active : What do you want?
Passive : What is wanted by you?

Active : What has he done?
Passive : What has been done by him?

Active : Which book does he want? 
Passive : Which book is wanted by him?

Active : Why did the teacher punish you?
Passive : Why were you punished by the teacher? 

Active : How did you do it?
Passive : How was it done by you?

Active : When will you read the book?
Passive : When will the book be read by you?

Active : Where have you found her?
Passive : Where has she been found by you?

Active : How many books does she need?
Passive : How many books are needed by her?

Active : When did you do the sum?
Passive : When was the sum done by you?

Active : What class do you read in?
Passive : What class is read in by you?

Active : Which book do you want?
Passive : Which book is wanted by you?

Rule - 3

Interrogative Sentence এর শুরুতে Who বা Whom থাকলে Who = By whom এবং Whom = Who বসে। 

যেমন — 
Active : Who taught you English? 
Passive : By whom were you taught English? 

Active : Who is calling me?
Passive : By whom am I being called? 

Active : Who has broken the glasses? 
Passive : By whom have the glasses been broken? 

Active :  Who will help you?
Passive : By whom will you be helped? 

Active : Whom did you see on the road?
Passive : Who was seen by you on the road? 

Active : Who is writing a letter? 
Passive : By whom is a letter bring written? 

Active : Who was called by you?
Passive : By whom was it done?

Active : Who knows the ways of nature? 
Passive : By whom are the ways of nature known? 

Active : Who has done it? 
Passive : By whom has it been done?

Active : Who opened the door? 
Passive : By whom was the door opened? 
 
Active : Whom did you call?
Passive : Who was called by you?

Change the Voice of Complex Sentences


Complex sentence এর passive voice এ পরিবর্তনকালে principal ও subordinate উভয় প্রকার clause এর পরিবর্তন করতে হয়। এক্ষেত্রে কখনো কখনো Introductory 'it' passive voice এ subject হিসেবে ব্যবহার করা হয়। উভয় clause এর subject যদি একই হয়, তাহলে শুধুমাত্র শেষের clause এর পরে subject এবং by যোগে object পরিবর্তিত হয়।

উদাহরণ —
Active : We know that Columbus discovered America. 
Passive : It is known to us that America was discovered by Columbus. 

Active : I know that he did the work. 
Passive : It is known to me that the work was done by him.
or, Passive : That the work was done by him is known to me.

Active : People say that the lion is the king of beast.
Passive : The lion is said to be the king of beast.
or, Passive : It is said that the lion is the king of beast.

Active : He told me that he had done the work.
Passive : I was told that work had been done by him.

Complex Sentence এ একটি পুরো Clause যদি Subject বা Object হিসেবে ব্যবহৃত হয়, তাহলে Passive voice এ পুরো Clause টিই Subject বা Object হিসেবে ব্যবহৃত হয়।

Active : I know that he will pass in the examination. 
Passive : That he will pass in the examination is known to me.

Active : People know that he was unhappy. 
Passive : That he was unhappy is known to people. 

Active : We know that the earth is round. 
Passive : It is known to us that the earth is round. 

Passive Voice with Double Objects


দুটি Object যুক্ত Transitive verb এ Passive এ রূপান্তরের সময় একটি Object কে Subject এ পরিণত করতে হবে এবং অন্যটি পরিবর্তিতভাবে Retained Object হিসেবে মূল Verb এর পরে বসবে।

(দুটি Object এর মধ্যে যে object টি স্বস্থানে থেকে যায় তাকে Retained Object বলে)
 
উদাহরণ — 
Active : He teaches us English.  
Passive : We are taught English by him.
or, Passive : English is taught us by him.

Active : I gave him a book.
Passive : He was given a book by me.
or, Passive : A book was given to him by me.

Active :  Selim offered me a seat.
Passive : I was offered a seat by Selim.
or, Passive : A seat was offered to me by Selim.

Active : They handed him a leaflet. 
Passive : He was handful a leaflet by them.
or, Passive : A leaflet was handed him by them.

Active : I gave him a book.
Passive : A book was given him by me?
or, Passive : He was given a book by me?

আবার, দুটি object যুক্ত Active Voice এ একটির পূর্বে Preposition থাকলে, Preposition যুক্ত Object টি Passive Voice এ Subject হিসেবে ব্যবহৃত হবে না।

উদাহরণ —
Active : Jerry did for me the unnecessary things.
Passive : The unnecessary things were done for me by Jerry.

Reflexive object (himself, myself, ourselves, herself, themselves) কখনো রূপে ব্যবহৃত হয় না। নিয়মাবলী:
(i) Active Voice এর Subject এবং Object দুটোই অপরিবর্তিত থাকবে।
(ii) শুধু Object এর পূর্বে by বসে।
(iii) Verb এর পরিবর্তন সাধারণ নিয়ম অনুসারে হয়ে থাকে।

উদাহরণ — 
Active : She hurt herself. 
Passive : She was hurt by herself. 

Active : Shahed praises himself. 
Passive : Shahed is praised by himself.

Active : He killed himself. 
Passive : He was killed by himself. 

Active : The lady praised herself. 
Passive : The lady is praised by herself. 

Active : She fans herself. 
Passive : She is fanned by herself. 

Passive Voice of Intransitive Verb


Intransitive verb এর সাধারণত passive voice হয় না। কারণ এর কোনো Object নেই। তবে Intransitive verb এর Cognate object Preposition গ্রহণ পূর্বক Transitive Verb হিসেবে ব্যবহৃত হলে তখন Passive এ পরিবর্তন করা যায়।

উদাহরণ — 
Active : We fought a battle. 
Passive : A battle was fought by us.

Active : They laugh at us.
Passive : We are laughed at by them.

Active : Karim flies a kite.
Passive : A kite is flown by Karim.

Active : He ran a race.
Passive : A race was run by him.

Active : She looks after the orphans.
Passive : The orphans are looked after by her.

Active :  The track run over the boy.
Passive : The boy was run over by the truck.

Active : He dreamt a dream. 
Passive : A dream was dreamt by him.

Active : He dispensed with my services. 
Passive : My services were dispensed with by him.

Elect, appoint, nominate, think, believe, select, consider, treat, make, call, entitle, name ইত্যাদি Transitive verb গুলোর object থাকা সত্বেও পরিপূর্ণ অর্থ প্রকাশ করার জন্য অতিরিক্ত object আনতে হয়। অতিরিক্ত এই object কে Factitive Object বা Complementary object বলে। যেমন— We make him captain. (captain হলো Factive object এবং him হল মূল object) 

Passive voice এ পরিবর্তনের Factitive object টি object হিসাবেই থেকে যায়।

উদাহরণ — 
Active : We elected him captain. 
Passive : He was elected captain by us.
(Captain was elected him by us হয় না)

Active : We appointed him teacher. 
Passive : He was appointed teacher by us.
(Teacher was appointed him by us হয় না)

Active : People made him king.
Passive : He was made king by people. 

Active : You called me a fool.
Passive : I was called a fool by you.

Active : We made him captain. 
Passive : He was made captain by us.

Active : He called it laurel. 
Passive : It was called laurel by him. 

Active : The teacher called the boy a fool.
Passive : The boy was called a fool by the teacher. 

Active : They elected me secretary of the club. 
Passive : I was elected secretary of the club by them.

Passive Voice of Group Verbs


Preposition যুক্ত Group Verb গুলো Transitive Verb এর ন্যায় কাজ করে বলে তাদের Passive Voice হয়। এক্ষেত্রে  Preposition টি সর্বদাই Verb সংলগ্ন অবস্থায় থাকে। 

উদাহরণ —  
Active : He looks after the garden.  
Passive : The garden is looked after by him.

Active : They laughed at the blind man.
Passive : The blind man was laughed at by them.

Active : We must listen to our teachers. 
Passive : Our teachers must be listened to by us.

Active : My mother takes care of us.
Passive : We are taken care of by my mother. 

Passive Voice with Bare Infinitive


Need, bid, behold, watch, let, dare, make, hear, feel, know, do, go ইত্যাদি verb গুলোর পর Active voice এ to উহ্য থাকে কিন্তু passive করার সময় তাদের পরে to বসে।

উদাহরণ — 
Active : We watch them play.
Passive : They are watched to play by us.

Active : I heard him say this.
Passive : He was heard to say this by me.

Active : He made me do the work.
Passive : I was made to do the work by him.

Active : I saw him go.
Passive : He was seen to go by me.

Active : He helped me do the sum.
Passive : I was helped to do the sum by him.

Passive Voice with Present Participle


Present Participle (verb + ing) যুক্ত Active voice কে possive voice করার সময় উহা অপরিবর্তিত থাকে এবং verb এর পরে বসে।

উদাহরণ —  
Active : I saw him reading a book.
Passive : He was seen reading a book by me.

Active : We saw the bird flying in the sky.
Passive : The bird was seen flying in the sky by us.

Double passive should be avoid : Double passive পরিহার করা উচিত। কারণ অনেক সময় তা ভুল ব্যাখ্যা প্রদান করে থাকে।

উদাহরণ — 
Active :  The police ordered the criminal to be shot.
Passive (incorrect) : The criminal was ordered by the police to be shot. (Double passive)
Passive (correct) : It was ordered by the police that the criminal should be shot.
or, Passive (corrent) : It was ordered to shot the criminal. 

ব্যাখ্যা —
উপরের প্রথম Passive বাক্যটি ভুল। কারণ এখানে আদেশ দেওয়া হয়েছে Criminal কে মারার জন্য। কিন্তু The criminal was ordered দ্বারা Criminal কে বলা হয় অন্য কাউকে গুলি মারার জন্য যার ফলে মূল অর্থ পাল্টে যায়।

One + Should যুক্ত Sentence কে Passive করার নিয়ম


(i) প্রথমে object টি subject রূপে বসে + 
(ii) should be + মূল verb এর past participle বসে।

উদাহরণ — 
Active : One should take care of one's health. 
Passive : Health should be taken care of.

কতিপয় Transitive verb এর অর্থগত কারণে passive voice হয় না। তাদের অধিকাংশ  stative verbs (যে সমস্ত verb শুধু অবস্থা নির্দেশ করে কিন্তু কর্ম সম্পাদন করা বুঝায় না  তাকে stative verb বলে)। যেমন :— have, fit, suit, lack, resemble) 

Active : I have a cow. (but not : A cow is had by me)

Passive Voice - Active Voice without by + agent


অনেক সময় passive voice এ ক্রিয়া সম্পাদনকারী object এর উল্লেখ থাকে না। এরূপ ক্ষেত্রে passive voice এর অর্থ অনুযায়ী  Active voice এ subject ধরে নিতে হয়। সাধারনত : one, someone, somebody, none, we, they, people, the boy, it, circumstances, he ইত্যাদি subject হিসাবে ব্যবহৃত হয়ে থাকে। 

উদাহরণ — 
Passive : My book was stolen. 
Active : Someone stolen my book.

Passive : He is not known here.
Active : Nobody knows him here.

Passive : I was awarded a gold medal.
Active : They award me a gold medal.

Passive : English is spoken all over the world. 
Active : People speak English all over the world. 

Passive : My book has been lost.
Active : I have lost my book.

Passive : I was compelled to do it.
Active : Circumstances compelled me to do it.

Passive : Promise should be kept.
Active : One should keep one's promise. 

Passive : The thief was arrested. 
Active : The police arrested the thief.

Passive : The tree has been uprooted. 
Active : The cyclone has uprooted the tree.

Passive : Rome was not built in a day.
Active : The Romans did not build Rome in a day.

Passive : We were defeated. 
Active : We defeated them.

Passive : He is expected soon.
Active : We expected him soon.

Passive : I was obliged to go.
Active : Circumstances obliged me to go.

Passive : Nothing can be gain without labour. 
Active : We can gain nothing without labour. 

Passive : French is spoken in Quebeck.
Active : People in Quebeck speak French.

Passive : Indiscipline should not be encouraged. 
Active : We should not encourage indiscipline. 

Passive : What is lotted can not be blotted. 
Active : We can not blot our lot. 

Exception


কতগুলো Imperative Sentence কে দুইভাবে Passive Voice এ পরিবর্তন করা যায়।

যেমন — 
Active :  Keep your word.
Passive : Let your word be kept.
or, Passive : Your word should be kept.

Active : Keep your promise. 
Passive : Let your promise be kept.
or, Passive : Your promise should be kept.

When to Use the Passive Voice


(a) Subject জানা না থাকলে বা অনিদির্ষ্ট হলে :
He was elected Chairman. 

(b) ক্রিয়া সম্পাদনকারীর উল্লেখের প্রয়োজন না হলে :
Jute is grown in Bangladesh. 

(c) Receiver অর্থাৎ ভুক্তভোগী উপর জোর বুঝালে :
A boy was knocked down by a car.

(d) ক্রিয়া সম্পাদনকারী অজ্ঞান বা গুরুত্বহীন হলে :
They were attacked on the way.
Everything was ruined. 

(e) সামাজিক ও ঐতিহাসিক গুরুত্ব বুঝাতে :
Radio was invented by Marconi.

(f) নিমন্ত্রণ/ অনুরোধ/ ঘোষণা ইত্যাদি বুঝালে :
Students are requested not to make a noise.

(g) Newspaper reports বুঝাতে :
Cox's Bazar was flooded by a tidal surge.

(h) কোন কার্যের শেষ বা ফলাফল বুঝাতে :
The meeting was postponed. 

✔ Note
Apper, belong, comprise, disappear despair, occur, ensure, result, wonder, perish, refer, issue, indulge ইত্যাদি verb গুলোকে Intransitive verb বলে। এদের Passive Voice হয় না।

Chapter Review


Active : Mukti is writing a letter. 
Passive : A letter is being written by Mukti.

Active : We insist on punctuality in this office. 
Passive : Punctuality is insisted in this office. 

Active : Let me write a letter. 
Passive : Let a letter be written by me.

Active : Shut the door at once.
Passive : Let the door be shut.

Active : A freedom fighter is always honoured by his country people. 
Passive : People of a country always honour their freedom fighter. 

Active : Tell him to go.
Passive : Let him be told to go.

Active : He heard her sing.
Passive : She was heard to sing by him.

Active : Post the letter. 
Passive : Let the letter be posted. 

Active : You made him cook rice.
Passive : He was made to cook rice.

Active : I remember my sister taking me to the museum. 
Passive : I remember being taken to the museum by my sister. 

Active : They have built a perfect dam across the river.
Passive : A perfect dam has been built by them across the river.

Practice more voice change :

Passive : It is time to do the work. 
Active : It is time for the work to be done.

Passive : Listen to me.
Active : You are told/ requested to listen to me.

Passive : How long will he helping her?
Active : How long will she be being helped by him?

Passive : They should have supported me.
Active : I should have been supported by them.

Passive : I want to do it.
Active : I want it to be done.

Passive : I demand to hold a party.
Active : I demand that a party should be held.

Passive : I am a student. 
Active : I am supposed to be a student. 

Passive : You know that I think.
Active : What I think is known to you. 

Passive : How can I help you?
Active : How can you be helped by me?

Written By
Azibul Hasan

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