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Essay : The Liberation War of Bangladesh

The Liberation War of Bangladesh

Introduction : The Bangladesh Liberation War was a war of independence during 1971, which resulted in the secession in the secession of East Pakistan from the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, and established the sovereign nation of Bangladesh. The was pitter East Pakistan and India against West Pakistan and lasted over a duration of nine months. It was one of the most violent wars of the 20th century, which witnessed large-scale atrocities, the exodus of 10 million refugees and the displacement of 30 million people.

The War broke out on March 26, 1971, when the Pakistan Army launched militancy operations against Bangali civilians, students, intelligentsia and armed personnel. In response, the declaration of Bangladesh independence was proclaimed by the father of Nation Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. India entered the war on December 3, 1971, after Pakistan launched pre-emptive airstrikes on northern India. Overwhelmed by two war fronts, Pakistani defenses soon collapsed. On December 16, the Allied Forces of Bangladesh and India defeated Pakistan in the east. 

Operation Searchlight : A planned military invasion carried out by Pakistan Army codenamed ‘Operation Searchlight’ started on 26 March and the diminishing all opposition, political or military within one month. On the night of 25 March, Bengali Members of military service were disarmed and killed, students and the intelligentsia were systematically liquidated and able-bodied Bengali males were just picked up and gunned down. 

Declaration of independence : The violence unleashed by the Pakistani forces on 25 March 1971, proved the last straw to the efforts to negotiate a settlement. Following their outrages, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman declared the independence of Bangladesh. 

Conclusion : On December 16, 1971, Dhaka fell to the Mitro Bahini, the elite of the Mukti Bahini and the Indian Army. An ‘Instrument of surrender’ was signed by the defeated Pakistani General Niazi and by Indian Commander General Aurora. This is now Bangladesh which became liberated and independent. December 16 is recognized as the Victory Day in Bangladesh, while March 26 is recognized as the independence Day with sovereignty, Bangladesh is progressing in all aspects.


Same composition collected from another book


Freedom is the eternal desire of man. The spirit of revolution emerges from this desire. And this very spirit inspires man to achieve his freedom. We are the inhabitants of the independent Bangladesh. But it was not free in the past. Bangladesh lost her independence in the different phases of history. At last, the people of Bangladesh became free in 1971 from the Pakistani Rulers after fierce fighting. This was started on 26 March 1971 and continued till on 16 December 1971. So, Liberation War is a memorable event in our national life.

At first, Bangladesh lost her freedom in 1757 in the Battle of Passey. After passing 200 years, the people of Indo-Pak subcontinent became free in 1947 from the British reign. This subcontinent was then divided into two parts – India and Pakistan. Pakistan became independent on 14 August and India on 15 August.

However, our Bangladesh was under the government of Pakistan. Then it was known as East Pakistan. The mother-tongue of East Pakistan was Bangla. But the rulers of West Pakistan wanted to establish Urdu as the state language. The Bangalees could not tolerate it. In 1952, the Language Movement took place. The Bangalees continued their revolutionary activities by sacrificing their lives to acquire the right to speak in their mother tongue. The people of Bangladesh became successful. Again, the West Pakistani rulers wanted to violate the rule of democracy of the then East Pakistan.

In 1958, Ayub Khan promulgated Martial Law in East Bengal. At that time. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the greatest leader of Bangladesh raised his six points against the undemocratic and oppressive rule of Ayub Khan which shook his throne.

In the Election of 1970, the Awami League won absolute majority and had the legal right to form the government. The Pakistani rulers then changed their mood and started discussion with Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and his party. But secretly, they began to conspire to perish the Bangalee nationalism. Yahia Khan postponed the National Assembly meet on March 1, 1971. It was to meet on March 3, 1971. Hearing the news, the people of Bangladesh burst into tremendous rebellion. On 7 March 1971, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman delivered his speech addressing the people of Bangladesh which worked as a source of inspiration to the unarmed people of the then East Pakistan. On 26 March 1971, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman declared the independence of Bangladesh.

On 10 April 1971, at Mujibnagar the temporary government of Bangladesh was formed. The Mukti Bahini and the Indian Forces jointly began to fight against the Pak army under the guidance of the temporary government. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was selected as the President of the government.

The Pak army attacked the innocent people of Bangladesh on the dark night of 25 March 1971. They killed Bangalees, destroyed their houses, looted their property and tortured the women and girls barbarously. The war continued up to 16 December. During that time, a large number of intellectuals, doctors, journalists were killed by the brute army of Pakistan.

The Pakistan army tried their best to capture the whole Bangladesh but the freedom fighters, as well as the Indian forces, defeated them on land, water and in the air. Urged by patriotism, our freedom fighters showed their bravery by acquiring victory. At last, the brute army was compelled to surrender on the 16 December 1971.

Bangladesh achieved her independence at the cost of 30 lakh people. Now, it is our sacred duty to make the Liberation War meaningful by realizing its importance in our national life.


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