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Composition : Soil Pollution

Soil Pollution

Soil is the uppermost dry layer of the Earth made up of organic and inorganic materials. The importance of soil is to sustain terrestrial life on this planet and it is also the component where the sources of life like water and sunlight air come together.

Soil pollution can be declared to be the presence of toxic chemicals that pollute the soil, to high concentrations, to risk the ecosystem and human health. There are two types of soil pollution, one nature’s doing or other human-made. Usually, soil pollution is caused due to the presence of man-made applications like percolation of contaminated surface water, pesticides, fuel dumping, oil dumping, etc. A soil pollutant is a factor that is used for deterioration of soil due to texture, mineral, or quality content of soil being reduced. There are adverse effects of soil pollution on the growth of plants.

There are other activities like leaching of wastes from landfills, direct discharge of industrial wastes into the soil, etc. The most common chemicals involved here are solvents, petroleum hydrocarbons, lead, pesticides, and various heavy metals. So, the phenomena occurring has a high correlation with the intensities and industrialization of chemical usage.

Some of the main causes of soil pollution are increasing use of fertilizers, indiscriminate use of insecticides, herbicides, and pesticides, dumping of solid wastes and deforestation.

Some radioactive pollutants from sources such as nuclear reactors, explosions, hospitals, science labs, etc. go very deep into the soil, stay there for a long time and cause soil pollution.

False agricultural practices using advanced agro-technology mean the use of enormous amounts of toxic fertilizers including herbicides, weedicides, pesticides, etc. increases soil fertility but gradually decreases soil Physico-chemical and biological properties. Municipal trash heap, food processing waste, mining methods, and many more are other sources of soil pollution.

Some effects of soil pollution to name are toxicities of the soil can reduce the productivity and quality of it, and this affects the healthy growth of crops and plants. If plants are not grown in the amount or condition they should, it also affects the food cycle for humans and other animals.

If the productivity of the soil decreases due to soil pollution, then the economy is also affected by it. Soil pollution can also cause water pollution by contaminating the drinkable water. If soil erosion increases, then accidents like landslides and floods can happen.

Toxic chemicals enter the body through the food chain and disturb the entire inner body system thus soil pollution is very dangerous to health. In order to decrease and limit soil pollution, individuals, particularly industrialists, should follow all efficient control measures including environmental protection laws. People should promote the recycling and reuse of solid waste and maximum feasible tree plantation. The soil is responsible for the health and development of humankind. Hence it is our responsibility to keep it safe and pure and avoid conditions that can cause soil pollution.

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